Posted in Scrum Add-ons

Minimum Viable Product (MVP)

MVP Definition

MVP Tests (2, pg 89)

  • MVP tests are everything that tests the hypothesis
  • MVP is reserved for the actual product

MVP Prerequisites

Steps to take before building an MVP (2, pg 87)

  1. Formed hypotheses about your target customers
  2. Formed hypotheses about their underserved needs
  3. Articulated the value proposition you plan to pursue so that your product is better and different 
  4. Identified the top feature ideas you believe will address those needs and broken them down into smaller chunks
  5. Prioritised those feature chunks based on ROI 
  6. Selected a set of those feature chunks for your MVP candidate, which you hypothesize customers will find valuable

MVP Guidance

MVP Questions (1, pg 77)

  • Most important question is ‘What’s the most important thing we need to learn next about this hypothesis?’
  • Next question is ‘what is the least amount of work we can do to learn that?’

MVP Functionality (2, pg 89)

An MVP should address all of the needs from Olsen’s hierarchy – it should not be just functional – it should be usable and delight the user 


  1. Lean UX by Jeff Gothelf
  2. Lean Product Playbook by Dan Olsen
Posted in Scrum Add-ons

Prioritising Problems

Guidance on Prioritising Problems

By Risk (1, pg 45)

  • Highest risk: value ratio gets top priority
  • Work on the riskiest ones first
  • Keep all on a the backlog 

Prioritisation Techniques

Importance vs Satisfaction Framework (2, pg 47)

This technique is used for evaluating potential product opportunities

Importance vs Satisfaction (2, pg 47)
  • Competitive example is Excel. High important to users and it is the leading example. So product in this space to compete needs to be something like the online sheet tools for collaboration
  • Opportunity example is Uber where user satisfaction was low with taxi service but their need for a solution is very important to them
Measuring Customer Value
  • When importance and satisfaction are both percentages:
Customer value delivered = importance x satisfaction

Opportunity to add value = importance x (1-satisfaction)
Customer Value Example
  • For orange it is:
    • Customer value delivered: 0.9 x (0.35-0.2) = 0.135 
  • For blue it is:
    • Customer value delivered: 0.6 x (0.9-0.6) = 0.18 
  • So blue created marginally more value than orange. 

The Kano Model (2, pg 64)

  • Performance needs – adding more will increase satisfaction. For example fuel efficiency on a car. Increasing this will always increase satisfaction.
  • Must-Have needs – they never increase satisfaction. They only decrease it if they are missing 
  • Delighter needs – the customer is not dissatisfied at all if they are missing as they are unexpected and result in very high satisfaction if they are included
Using the kano model to compare with competitors
FeatureCompetitor ACompetitor BYour Product
Must Have Feature 1Yes/ NoYes/ NoYes/ No
Must Have Feature 2Yes/ NoYes/ NoYes/ No
Must Have Feature 3Yes/ NoYes/ NoYes/ No
Performance Feature 1High/ Med/ LowHigh/ Med/ LowHigh/ Med/ Low
Performance Feature 2High/ Med/ LowHigh/ Med/ LowHigh/ Med/ Low
Performance Feature 3High/ Med/ LowHigh/ Med/ LowHigh/ Med/ Low
Delighter Feature 1Yes/ NoYes/ NoYes/ No
Delighter Feature 2Yes/ NoYes/ NoYes/ No
Kano Table

Return on Investment

Approximating ROI (2, pg 84)


  1. Lean UX by Jeff Gothelf
  2. Lean Product Playbook by Dan Olsen
Posted in Scrum Add-ons

Value Proposition/ Hypothesis


Definition: Assumptions are our best guess based on what we know today. They are also filled with risk. Your goal as Lean UX practitioners is to reduce risk. (1, pg 23) 

Four Big Assumptions (1, pg 24)

  • Business outcomes
  • Users
  • User outcomes 
  • Features 

Assumptions Workshop (1, pg 24-25)


Whole Team


Find out the following in reference to the problem statement

  • Analytics reports that show how the current product is being used 
  • Usability reports that illustrate why customers are taking certain actions in your product 
  • Information about past attempts to fix this issue and their successes and failures 
  • Justification from the business as to how solving this problem will affect the company’s performance 
  • Competitive analysis that show how your competition is tackling the same issue 
WOrksheet Questions

Business Assumptions

  1. I believe my customers have a need to: 
  2. These needs can be solved with: 
  3. My initial customers are (or will be):
  4. The #1 value a customer wants to get our of my service is:
  5. They can also get these additional benefits:
  6. I will acquire the majority of my customers through:
  7. I will make money by:
  8. My primary competition in the market will be:
  9. We will beat them due to:
  10. My biggest product risk is:
  11. We will solve this through:
  12. We will know we are successful when we see the following changes in customer behaviour:
  13. What other assumptions do we have that, if proven false, will cause our business/ project to fail:

User Assumptions

  1. Who is the user?
  2. Where does our product fir in their work or life?
  3. What problems does our product solve?
  4. When and how is our product used?
  5. What features are important?
  6. How should our product look and behave?
  1. Give everyone the worksheet and ask them to answer the assumption questions individually about the problem statement
  2. Collect all the assumptions together
  3. Use these assumptions to form hypotheses

Hypotheses Creation

Hypothesis Statement Format (1, pg 30)

We believe [this statement is true]. We will know we’re [right/wrong] when we see the following feedback from the market: [qualitative feedback] and/or [quantitative feedback] and/or [key performance indicator change]

(1, page 30)

Hypothesis Driven Development (2, pg 87)

  • helps Scrum Teams to frame hypotheses and experiments with thinking about what they are trying to achieve and how they will measure it
  • helps teams to be mindful of assumptions
We believe [doing this feature] for [these personas] will achieve [this outcome]. We will know that this is true when we see [this measurement] changed.

Value and Growth Hypotheses (3, pg 61)

  • Value hypothesis: tests whether product delivers value to a customer (experiment, not survey) 
  • Growth hypothesis: tests how new customers will discover product/ service (find early adopters – people who need the product the most – they will be eager to feedback)

Experiment Stories (1, pg 127)

  • Hypothesis you’re testing or the thing you’re trying to learn
  • Tactic(s) for learning (e.g. interviews/ a/b testing) 
  • Who will do the work 
  • A level of effort estimate (e.g. story points) 
We believe that asking new users MORE questions during registration will increase complete profiles. 
Tactic: landing page test & customer interviews 
Assigned to: UX, PDM

Hypothesis Creation Workshop (1, pg 32 – 43)


Whole Team


Must have a problem statement before this

  1. Brainstorm small outcomes that will lead to the big outcome(s) in the problem statement (e.g. what behaviours will predict more downloads?)
    • Vote all together on priority (have a decider in the room if necessary) 
  2. Create a personas
    • Validate these personas
  3. Create user outcome (assumption of what the user is trying to do) 
    • E.g. How does our product or service get the user closer to a life goal or dream?
  4. Brainstorm features to meet these user outcomes
  5. Assemble what you have created in steps 1-4 into the hypothesis table (below)
    • Fill in the gaps in the table as you find them
    • Between 7 and 10 rows on the chart is a good starting point
    • Ensure that the hypothesis you create out of this focuses on 1 feature (multi-feature hypotheses are hard to test)
We will achieve…if this user……can achieve……with this feature
[business outcome][persona][user outcome][feature]


  1. Lean UX by Jeff Gothelf
  2. Mastering Professional Scrum by Stephanie Ockerman and Simon Reindl
  3. The Lean Startup by Eric Ries
Posted in Scrum Add-ons

What is the Problem?

Problem Statement Formats

Existing product problem statement elements (1, pg 25)

  • The current goals of the product or system 
  • The problem the business wants addressed (i.e. where the goals aren’t being met) 
  • An explicit request for improvement that doesn’t dictate a specific solution 
[Our service/ product] is intended to achieve [these goals].
We have observed that the product/ service isn't meeting [these goals] which is causing [this adverse effect] to our business. 
How might we improve [service/ product] so that our customer are more successful based on [these measurable criteria]?

Template (1, pg 26) 

New product problem statement elements (1, pg 27) 

  • The current state of the market
  • The opportunity the business wants to exploit  (i.e. where the current solutions are failing)
  • A strategic vision for a product or service to address the market gap
The current state of the [domain] has focused primarily on [customer segments, pain points, etc] 
Our product/ service will address this gap by [vision/ strategy] 
Our initial focus will be [this segment]

Template (1, pg 27)


  1. Lean UX by Jeff Gothelf
Posted in Scrum Add-ons

User Stories

Stories express something that will be valuable to a user (2)

Benefits of User Stories

  • They act as a placeholder to remind us to have conversations rather than follow written requirements contracts
  • They encourage interaction through the conversations
  • They are comprehensible by all, from devs and throughout the business, and have no technical jargon
  • They are the right size to be able to plan and estimate
  • When working iteratively we don’t have to write all stories upfront and can refine as we go along the project

Splitting Stories

Vertical Slicing

  • Always slice stories from the point of view of our customer
  • All stories must have value, which can be to our customer directly or indirectly
  • The technical layers that make up the value are to be kept together (like the layers of a birthday cake) as one layer on its own does not provide value
  • Splitting stories into the technical layers can lead to defining the solution and restricting abilities to creatively iterate

Using Scenarios to Split Stories

  • See BDD and Three Amigos for writing stories with scenarios
  • Use these scenarios to break the story down into smaller pieces of value

Cake Metaphor (3)

Cake Metaphor Doodle
  • To split the story down you could break it down horizontally and take each ingredient in turn
  • But if you slice horizontally you will just get egg and not know if the cake ingredients all work together to provide value (it could taste awful all together!)
  • Instead, bake a cupcake!
  • You get all the ingredients but a smaller size to check the recipe works
A Cupcake Doodle!

User Story Construction

The Three C’s

  • Description that defers the details
As a [user type]
I want [functionality]
So that [benefit]
  • Verbal conversations are best
  • Highlights that we don’t know all the detail
  • Reminder of conversations we have had, work that has been done, any wider context
  • Acceptance Criteria
  • Must be matched for a story to be considered done
  • User point of view only
  • No design specifications unless the user wants them

Good User Story Guidance

INVEST Criteria

  • Stories shouldn’t have to be completed in a specific order and should not rely on another story to be started
  • This is not always achievable
  • Common examples are when you need something to exist before you can build upon it or when one story reduces the complexity of another making it seem logical to do them in a specific order
  • How do we respond to this?
    • Don’t put dependent stories in the same sprint to keep the flow
    • Join together dependent stories
  • Stories are not contracts – they are short descriptions of functionality
  • Open to discussion with the team
  • Simplify, alter, add to in whatever way is best for the goal and the product
  • Valued to user/ customer
  • Technology assumptions have no value to the customer!
  • Good size
  • Just enough information, but not too much to become confusing
  • If an investigation is needed before estimation, use a spike
  • Lower Limit is coffee break size, i.e. big enough that you deserve a coffee break for finishing
  • Scrum team will highlight size issues in refinement
  • Language is important
  • It must be specific, unlike “A user never has to wait for it to load”
  • “It takes two seconds max to load in 95% of cases” is much better

Acceptance Test Writing Guidance (2)

  • Always add tests as long as they add value
  • Capture assumptions
  • Provide basic criteria for when story is Done
  • Questions to ask
    • What else do devs want to know?
    • What am I assuming?
    • What can go wrong?
    • Circumstances where story might behave differently
    • Usability
    • Stress
    • Performance

Stories should be closed, not open ended

  • Use language to ensure that the stories have a definite closure
  • Continuous jobs are bad (e.g. managing an ad)
    • Instead use closed actions like “review responses” and “edit response”

User Story Card Example (3)

User Story Card Doodle
  1. Story reference number
  2. Author of the story
  3. Value/ importance
  4. Status/ release
  5. Size/ estimate
  6. Date created
  7. Dependencies
  8. Metrics (if relevant)
  9. Description
  10. Story title (this is the only mandatory field)

User Story Smells

Too Small

EVIDENCE: Frequent need to revise estimates depending on order

FIX: Combine the stories together

Not Independent

EVIDENCE: Difficulty in planning the iteration and lots of swapping stories in and out

FIX: Re-split the stories

Gold Plating

EVIDENCE: Extra wow factor being added that isn’t in the story

FIX: Increase the visibility in the Daily Scrum

Too Much Detail

EVIDENCE: Too long discussing the story

FIX: Strip the story back to its basics and focus on the user point of view

Trouble Prioritising

EVIDENCE: Stories cannot be prioritised logically

FIX: Stories may need to be broken down smaller or re-written from a value point of view


  1. The Scrum Guide
  2. User Stories Applied by Mike Cohn
  3. User Story Mapping by Jeff Patton
Posted in Scrum Add-ons

Hypothesis/ Solution Exploration Testing

"More than half of our ideas will deliver no value, we just don't know which half" - John Wanamaker (3, pg 78)

Product Testing Statistics

Experiment Statistics (3, pg 79)

  • 65% of features are rarely or never used
  • At Google and Bing, only 10 – 20% of experiments generate positive results (Harvard Business Review)
  • At Microsoft 1/3 have positive results, 1/3 have neutral results, 1/3 have negative results

Creating a Product Test

Focus on value (5, 78)

  • Get to the point – ignore the navigation/ log in etc if it does not help you determine the value 
  • Use a clear call to action – give the user a clear way to show that they value your solution like signing up for it 
  • Prioritise ruthlessly – don’t hold on to invalidated solutions
  • Stay agile – work in a medium that allows you to make updates easily as feedback comes in fast 
  • Don’t reinvent the wheel – use existing systems like email, forums etc to save work 
  • Measure behaviour – observe and measure what people do (behaviour trumps opinion here) 
  • Talk to users – understand why they are behaving this way

Truth Curve (5, pg 80)

The amount of effort you put into your MVP should be proportional to the amount of evidence you have that your idea is a good one

X axis shows the level of investment you should put into your MVP

Y axis shows the amount of market based evidence you have about your idea

Truth Curve (5, pg 80)

Product Testing Grids

Qualitative TestsQuantitative Tests
Marketing TestsMarketing MaterialsLanding Page/ smoke test
Explainer Video
Ad Campaign
Marketing A/B tests
Product TestsPaper Prototype
Interactive Prototype
Wizard of Oz
Live Product
Fake door/ 404 page
Product analytics and A/B tests
Qualitative TestsQuantitative Tests
BehaviouralUsability testingA/B testing
AttitudinalUser InterviewsSurveys
Research Methods Framework (1, pg 230)

Qualitative Marketing Tests

Marketing Materials (1, pg 93)

  • To understand which benefits resonate with customers
  • To understand how they react to different ways of showing the benefits
  • Aim is to understand how they find the marketing material and why
  • Marketing material can be landing page, video, advert, email

Quantitative Marketing Tests

Landing page/ smoke test (1, pg 94)

  • Traffic is directed to a landing page
  • On this page they are asked to show interest (e.g. a sign up button, or a plans and pricing page)
  • There is no product yet
  • A ‘coming soon’ message is often displayed to those who show interest

Explainer video (1, pg 94)

  • Same as landing page
  • For products that are harder to explain on a landing page (e.g. dropbox)

Ad campaign (1, pg 94)

  • As adverts don’t allow you to display a lot, this is more appropriate for optimising customer acquisition and not product-market fit
  • Can advertise to different demographics to check hypothesis about target market
  • Measure clickthrough rate to measure which ads (and from which demographics) prove more successful

Marketing A/B testing (1, pg 94)

  • Test two alternative designs to compare how they perform
  • Run the tests in parallel with 50% of the traffic to each for simplicity

Crowdfunding (1, pg 94)

  • Advertising your product on a site like Kickstarter and asking people to pay for the product in advance of it being made
  • Set a minimum threshold for funding where you do not build your product before you have raised £X of funding
  • The donators to your product will then get your product once it has been built (i.e. pre-order the product with a discount)

Qualitative Product Tests

Paper Prototype (5, pg 89)

  • Can be created quickly
  • Easily arranged and rearranged 
  • Cheap and easy to throw away if you are wrong 
  • Can be assembled with materials already found in the office 
  • Fun activity many people enjoy
  • Rapid iteration and duplication of the prototype can become time-consuming and tedious 
  • The simulation is very artificial, because you’re not using the actual input mechanisms (mouse/ keyboard/ touch screen etc) 
  • Feedback is limited to the high-level structure, information architecture, and flow of the product
  • Only useful with limited audience

Wireframes/ Mockups/ Interactive Prototypes (1, pg 100) (2, pg 124) (5, pg 89)

  • Demonstrate or show concepts to user to gauge their feedback (e.g. wireframes)
  • Have an ‘ask’ as a definitive pass-or-fail criteria
    • Commitment, monetary value, time, or another investment to show that they are interested
  • E.g. dropbox did a video of their concept (advert as if they had built it) to convince investors
  • Variations in interactivity and fidelity
  • (fidelity refers to how closely the artifact looks like the final product)
  • Provide a good sense of the length of the workflow
  • Reveal major obstacles to primary task completion 
  • Allow assessment of findability of core elements
  • Can be used relatively quickly 
  • Most people will recognise that it is an unfinished product 
  • More attention than normal is paid to labelling and copy
Example of a Wireframe Sketch

Low fidelity prototype (4, page 49)

  • Start with the a persona
  • Draw the homepage and ask what actions the user wants to do from there
  • For each action draw a box (each box is a story)
  • Continue until the persona has completed their actions (including exploring edge cases) and then start with another persona
Example of Low Fidelity Prototype

Concierge (2, pg 122)

  • Deliver the end result to your customer manually
  • Customer understands that it is being done manually and there is no appearance of a final solution to them
  • Conduct with just enough users as this is labour intensive

Wizard of Oz (2, pg 123)

  • Deliver the end result to your customer manually
  • Customer is not aware that it is manual behind the scenes and thinks they are using the end product
  • Tempting to leave them up as if successful you will get value from it, but it is expensive to run
  • Can be combined with A/B testing

Live Product (5, pg 89)

  • Potential to reuse code for production 
  • The most realistic simulation to create 
  • Can be generated from existing code assets
  • The team can be become bogged down in debating the finer points of the prototype
  • Time-consuming to create working code that delivers the desired experience
  • It’s tempting to perfect the code before releasing to customers
  • Updating and iterating can take a lot of time 

Quantitative Product Tests

Fake Door/ 404 page (1, page 100)

  • Good to test demand for a new feature
  • Include a link or button on the product to direct customers to a new feature
  • The link leads to a page saying it hasn’t been built yet and asking for why they would find this feature valuable
  • Overuse will make customers unhappy

Product A/B tests (1, page 100)

  • Used to compare performance of two alternative user experiences in your product

Qualitative Behavioural Tests

Usability testing

  • Online tools can be used to give a user a task and record them completing the task
  • Users are asked to talk through how easy it is to complete a task

Quantitative Behavioural Tests

A/B Testing

  • Two different versions of the product are shown to the user
  • Differences in behaviour are tracked (e.g. conversion percentage)


  • Tracking on the product of the users behaviour
  • Data can then be analysed to see if hypothesis was acheived

Qualitative Attitudinal Tests

User Interviews

  • One-on-one interview with a user
  • Coming soon: Tips on User interviews

Quantitative Attitudinal Tests

User Surveys

  • Coming soon: Tips of User Surveys


  1. Lean Product Playbook by Dan Olsen
  2. Escaping the Build Trap by Melissa Perri
  3. Mastering Professional Scrum by Stephanie Ockerman and Simon Reindl
  4. User Stories Applied by Mike Cohn
  5. Lean UX by Jeff Gothelf
Posted in Scrum Add-ons

Product Metrics

Criteria for Good metrics 

Actionable (2, 143)

  • Demonstrate clear cause and effect
  • Understand how value was achieved (eg was it engineering or marketing)
  • Blame culture when metrics go down is avoided

Accessible (2, 143)

  • Everyone can get them
  • Allows metrics to guide as they are single source of truth
  • “Metrics are people too”
    • E.g. website hit is not as accessible as customer visiting site

Auditable (2, 143)

  • Data is credible to employees
  • Can pot check the data with real people to verify

Iterating Metrics

Analytics Metrics Loop
The Lean Product Analytics Process (1, page 260)

Product Metrics Structures

Pirate or AARRR Metrics

Originally by David McClure

Pirate Metrics
AARRR Metrics Framework (1, page 239)


  1. Acquisition (prospects visit from various channels/ users find your product)
  2. Activation (prospects convert to customers/ users have their first great experience)
  3. Retention (customers remain active/ user return to your product)
  4. Referral (Customers refer prospects/ users recommend)
  5. Revenue (customers make your business money/ users pay for your product)


  • Can calculate conversion through each step of the funnel (3, page 106)


  • Does not consider user satisfaction (3, page 106)

HEART Framework

  • This framework is for a specific product or feature
  • Happiness (how satisfied the user is with the product)
  • Engagement (how the user interacts with the product)
  • Adoption (same as activation in Pirate Metrics)
  • Retention (same as Pirate Metrics)
  • Task Success (how easy is it for the user to complete the task)

Specific Metric Details

Retention Parameters

Retention Curves (1, page 243)

  • Days since first use does not start at 0 usually as this would be 100% and would alter the scale of the graph
  • Can use cohort analysis (i.e. plotting the retention rates of different user cohorts (groups) onto the same axis to see the difference in the retention parameters for the separate groups
Retention Curve
Retention Curve (1, page 243)
  • Parameter 1 to notice: The percentage where the graph starts on Day 1 shows the initial drop off rate
  • Parameter 2: Rate that the retention curve decreases from Day 1 value
  • Parameter 3: Terminal value for retention curves is where the retention flattens out. If it is 0% then your product will ultimately lose all of its customers


  1. Lean Product Playbook by Dan Olsen
  2. Lean Startup by Eric Ries
  3. Escaping the Build Trap by Melissa Perri
Posted in Scrum Roles

Scrum Master

“The Scrum Master is responsible for promoting and supporting Scrum as defined in the Scrum Guide”(1)


A Scrum Master…

  • helps everyone understand Scrum
  • is a servant-leader for the Scrum Team
  • helps those outside the Scrum Team understand which of their interactions with the Scrum Team are helpful and which aren’t (1)
  • The Scrum Master helps everyone change these interactions to maximise the value created by the Scrum Team (1)

Scrum Master service to the PO

Maximising Value 

  • Supports understanding product planning in an empirical environment (1)
  • Ensures the Product Owner knows how to arrange the Product Backlog to maximize value (1)
  • Coaching question:
    • How is the product going? (2)

Product Backlog Management 

  • Finds techniques for effective Product Backlog management (1)
  • Helps the Scrum Team understand the need for clear and concise Product Backlog items (1)

Development Team Interactions

  • Ensures that goals, scope, and product domain are understood by everyone on the Scrum Team as well as possible (1)
  • Coaching Questions (2) 
    • How is the team doing?
    • How each of you is fulfilling your roles?
    • How can you help one another?

Agility and Personal Development

  • Supports understanding and practicing agility (1)
  • Teaching Questions (2)
    • What must you believe about the team and the organisation to be a good PO
    • What parts of the role feel like a stretch for you?
    • What parts of the role do you feel you have mastered?
    • Which parts will you have to make yourself do?
    • What should I, as the coach, watch for to keep these beliefs?

Product Owner Support Exercise (3)

  1. Brainstorm with the Product Owner all the duties that their role should perform (or both Scrum Master and Product Owner if one person is doing both roles)
  2. Talk through them and highlight the ones that they are not able to do because of time-constraint/ training/ empowerment/ conflict of interest between roles/ etc
  3. Present the outcome to the Product Owner’s manager/ ‘trace the money’ if the Product Owner isn’t the decision maker

Scrum Master service to the Devs

  • Coaching in self-organisation and cross-functionality (1)
  • Removing impediments to the Development Team’s progress (1)
  • Facilitating Scrum events as requested or needed (1)
  • Coaching the Development Team in organisational environments in which Scrum is not yet fully adopted and understood (1)

Scrum Master service to the organisation

  • Leading and coaching the organisation in its Scrum adoption (1)
  • Planning Scrum implementations within the organisation (1)
  • Helping employees and stakeholders understand and enact Scrum and empirical product development (1)
  • Causing change that increases the productivity of the Scrum Team (1)
  • Working with other Scrum Masters to increase the effectiveness of the application of Scrum in the organisation (1)


Scrum Master Qualities (4, pg 128)

  • Leads by example
    • Scrum values
    • Trust in empiricism
    • Positive mindset
    • Adaptive approach
  • Enables and empowers others
    • Doesn’t solve people’s problems, but makes opportunities transparent
    • Knows he/she doesn’t have the best answers
  • Creates and environment of safety and is comfortable with failure
    • Safety in conflict
    • Trying new things
  • Cares deeply for people and is also willing to challenge when they are capable of more
    • Assumes positive intent and doesn’t judge people
    • Meets people where they are and helps them find their next step
    • Inspires to hold themselves to even higher standards
  • Opertates with integrity and stays calm under pressure
    • His/her leadership provides consistency and stability
  • Shows low tolerance for organisational impediments
    • Willing to challenge and speak the truth
    • Advocate for the team


  1. The Scrum Guide 
  2. Coaching Agile Teams by Lyssa Adkins
  3. Fixing Your Scrum by Ryan Ripley and Todd Miller
  4. Mastering Professional Scrum by Stephanie Ockerman and Simon Reindl

Explore more Scrum

Scrum Theory Scrum Values Development Team Product Owner Definition of Done
Posted in Scrum Roles

Product Owner

‘Responsible for maximising the value of the product resulting from work of the Development Team’ (1)

Be one mind with the sponsor (2)

Vision keeper (2)

Product Owner Responsibilities

Maximising Value

  • how this is done may vary widely across organisations, Scrum Teams, and individuals (1)

Managing the Product Backlog

  • expressing Product Backlog items and ensuring the Development Team understands them sufficiently
  • ordering the items in the Product Backlog to best achieve goals and missions and so it is clear what is to be worked on next
  • transparency of the Product Backlog is ensured and it is visible

Product Owner in the Business

Product Owner is One Person 

  • the Product Owner is one person
  • the Product Owner may represent a committee
  • those wanting to change a Product Backlog item’s priority must address the Product Owner (1)

Stakeholder Mapping (3, pg 178)

  1. With the PO (and identified stakeholders) try and think of every person in the organisation who has a vested interest in the outcome.
    • Where is the money coming from?
    • Who’s job is going to change because of this product?
    • Who might interact with a customer differently as a result of what we are building?
    • Who might be angry if they don’t know what is going on with the product?
  2. Put the following categories on the wall and put each stakeholder inside a category
    • Required for the Sprint Review: these people must inspect and provide feedback on the product increment to enable the Scrum Team to make informed decisions
    • Keep informed of progress: they don’t need to inspect every increment but need to know what progress has been made
    • Monitor: should receive updates periodically (check with them how often they would like these)

Product Owner’s Decisions (1)

  • the entire organisation must respect the Product Owner’s decisions
  • the content and ordering of the Product Backlog makes the decisions visible to all
  • no one can force the Development Team to work from a different set of requirements


Product Owner Behaviours


  • Committed
  • Responsible (outcome)
  • Authorised (to make decisions)
  • Collaborative
  • Knowledgable (about the business)

Product Owner’s Relationship with the Development Team

Tips from Lyssa Adkins (2)

  • No micromanaging
  • Hold the team to account
  • Show genuine disappointment
  • Be present


  1. The Scrum Guide
  2. Coaching Agile Teams by Lyssa Adkins
  3. Fixing Your Scrum by Ryan Ripley and Todd Miller

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Scrum Theory Scrum Values Development Team Scrum Master Definition of Done
Posted in Scrum Events

Sprint Planning


“The work to be performed in the Sprint is planned at the Sprint Planning” (1)


Definition: Sprint Planning is a meeting involving the entire Scrum Team to collaboratively decide what work will be taken up for the Sprint and how the work will be done (2, pg 27)

Length: Maximum of 8 hours for a one-month Sprint

Input: Product Backlog, Definition of Done, Retrospective Improvements, Team Capacity Planning, Impediments, Product Increment

Outcome: Sprint Goal (The What) and Sprint Backlog (The Why)

People: Product Owner, Scrum Master, Development Team

By the end of the Sprint Planning, the Development Team should be able to explain to the Product Owner and Scrum Master how it intends to work as a self-organizing team to accomplish the Sprint Goal and create the anticipated Increment. (1)

What can be done this Sprint?

Product Backlog Items

  • The Development Team forecasts the functionality that will be developed during the Sprint for the Product Owner’s objective
  • The number of items selected from the Product Backlog for the Sprint is solely up to the Development Team. 

The Sprint Goal

Definition: The Sprint Goal is an objective that will be met within the Sprint through the implementation of the Product Backlog, and it provides guidance to the Development Team on why it is building the Increment (1)

  • During Sprint Planning the Scrum Team also crafts a Sprint Goal
  • The Sprint Goal is one coherent function
  • The Sprint Goal means all the Development Team work together rather than on separates objectives
  • The Sprint Backlog items can be negotiated with the Product Owner whilst the Sprint Goal

How will the chosen work get done?

  • The Development team decides how it will deliver the selected Product Backlog Items for the Sprint
  • The Development Team designs the system and the work needed to convert the Product Backlog Items into an Increment
    • Just enough to forecast what it can do in the Sprint
    • Work for the first few days of the Sprint is broken down more
    • Work may be of varying size, or estimated effort
  • The Product Owner helps to clarify and negotiate the selected Product Backlog items
  • The Development Team may also invite people with specific expertise to support them

Sprint Backlog

Product Backlog Items + Plan = Sprint Backlog


Sprint Planning Facilitation Technique (3, pg 128)



  1. The Scrum Guide
  2. Scrum Insights for Practitioners by Hiren Doshi
  3. Fixing Your Scrum by Ryan Ripley and Todd Miller

Explore Other Scrum Events

Sprint Daily Scrum Sprint Review Sprint Retrospective